November 12, 2008
The following are the events that transpired throughout 1968, the
year Edcouch-Elsa High School students protested against racial
discrimination, inadequate facilities and other issues:
Jan 6 -- Dr. Norman E. Shumway of Stanford performed the 1st US adult
heart transplant. Mike Kasperak (54) lived for 2 weeks before he died
of massive bleeding from other organs.
Jan. 9 -- The Surveyor VII space probe made a soft landing on the
moon, marking the end of the American series of unmanned explorations
of the lunar surface.
Jan.10 -- The 10,000 US airplane is lost over Vietnam.
Jan. 17 -- President Lyndon Baines Johnson (1908-1973) delivers the
State of the Union Address.
Jan 19 -- Cambodia charged that the United States and South Vietnam
had crossed the border and killed three Cambodian
Jan 21 -- In Vietnam the Battle of Khe Sahn began as North Vietnamese
forces attacked a US Marine base; the Americans were able to hold
their position until the siege was lifted 2 1/2 months later. It was
the longest and bloodiest battle of the Vietnam War. The Battle began
at 0530 hours when North Vietnamese Army forces hammered the
Marine-occupied Khe Sanh Combat Base with rocket, mortar, artillery,
small arms, and automatic weapons fire. Hundreds of 82-mm mortar
rounds and 122-mm rockets slammed into the combat base. Virtually all
of the base's ammunition stock and a substantial portion of the fuel
supplies were destroyed.
Jan. 23 -- North Korean patrol boats capture the USS Pueblo, a US
Navy intelligence gathering vessel and its 83 man crew on charges of
violating the communist country's twelve-mile territorial limit. This
crisis would dog the US foreign policy team for 11 months, with the
crew of the Pueblo finally gaining freedom on December 22.
Jan. 31 -- At half-past midnight on Wednesday morning the North
Vietnamese launch the Tet offensive at Nha Trang. Nearly 70,000 North
Vietnamese troops will take part in this broad action, taking the
battle from the jungles to the cities. The offensive will carry on
for weeks and is seen as a major turning point for the American
attitude toward the war. At 2:45 that morning the US embassy in
Saigon is invaded and held until 9:15AM.
Feb. 1 -- During police actions following the first day of the Tet
offensive General Nguyen Ngoc Loan, a south Vietnamese security
official is captured on film executing a Viet Cong prisoner by
American photographer Eddie Adams. The Pulitzer Prize-winning
photograph becomes yet another rallying point for anti-war
protestors. Despite later claims that the prisoner had been accused
of murdering a Saigon police officer and his family, the image seems
to call into question everything claimed and assumed about the
American allies, the South Vietnamese.
Feb. 2 -- Richard Nixon, a republican from California, enters the New
Hampshire primary and declares his presidential candidacy.
Feb. 4 -- Martin Luther King Jr. delivers a sermon at his Ebenezer
Baptist Church in Atlanta which will come to be seen as prophetic.
His speech contains what amounts to his own eulogy. After his death,
he says, "I'd like somebody to mention that day that Martin Luther
King Jr. tried to give his life serving others. I'd like for somebody
to say that day that Martin Luther King Jr. tried to love somebody...
that I tried to love and serve humanity. Yes, if you want to, say
that I was a drum major for peace... for righteousness."
Feb 6 -- Charles de Gaulle opened the 19th Winter Olympics in
Feb. 7 -- International reporters arrive at the embattled city of Ben
Tre in South Vietnam. Peter Arnett, then of the Associated Press,
writes a dispatch quoting an unnamed US major as saying, "It became
necessary to destroy the town to save it." The quote runs nationwide
the next day in Arnett's report.
Feb 8 -- George Wallace of Alabama entered the presidential race.
Feb 8 -- Robert F. Kennedy said that the U.S. cannot win the Vietnam War.
Feb 12 -- "Soul on Ice" by Eldridge Cleaver (full name: Leroy
Eldridge Cleaver), a militant activist and Black Panther, was first
published. Cleaver spent much of his early life in and out of prison
on charges ranging from drug possession to assault. It was in prison
that he began the essays that would become Soul on Ice. Shortly after
being paroled in 1966, Eldridge Cleaver met Huey Newton and Bobby
Seale, the founders of the Black Panther party. Cleaver quickly
became the party's minister of information. Faced with further prison
time after a shootout with police in April 1968, Cleaver jumped bail
and fled the country, first to Cuba, then to Algeria. He returned
voluntarily in 1975 having broken with the Panthers and disillusioned
with communism. His change in thinking is reflected in his 1978 book
Soul on Fire. He died on May 1, 1998, in Pomona, California.
Feb 16 -- The nation's first 911 emergency telephone system was
inaugurated, in Haleyville, Ala.
Feb. 18 -- The US State Department announces the highest US casualty
toll of the Vietnam War. The previous week saw 543 Americans killed
in action, and 2547 wounded.
Feb 20 -- State troopers used tear gas to stop Alcorn A & M demonstrations.
Feb 24 -- The Tet offensive ended with the crushing of the last Viet
Cong resistance in Hue, South Vietnam. North Vietnamese troops
captured the imperial palace in Hue, South Vietnam. US troops
reconquered Hue, Vietnam.
Feb 26 -- Thirty-two African nations agreed to boycott the Olympics
because of the presence of South Africa, and apartheid.
Feb 26 -- Clandestine Radio Voice of Iraqi People (Communist) made
its final transmission.
Feb 27 -- CBS News anchorman Walter Cronkite's commentary on the
progress of the Vietnam War solidified President Lyndon B. Johnson's
decision not to seek re-election in 1968. Cronkite, who had been at
Hue in the midst of the Tet Offensive earlier in February, said: "Who
won and who lost in the great Tet Offensive against the cities? I'm
not sure." He concluded: "It is increasingly clear to this reporter
that the only rational way out...will be to negotiate, not as victors
but as an honorable people who lived up to their pledge to defend
democracy, and did the best they could." Johnson called the
commentary a "turning point," saying that if he had "lost Cronkite,"
he'd "lost Mr. Average Citizen." On March 31, Johnson announced he
would not seek re-election.
Feb 29 -- At the Grammy Awards, the Fifth Dimension's "Up, Up and
Away" won record of the year for 1967, while album of the year honors
went to the Beatles for "Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band."
Feb 29 -- President Johnson's National Advisory Commission on Civil
Disorders (also known as the Kerner Commission) warned that racism
was causing America to move "toward two societies, one black, one
white -- separate and unequal."
Feb 29 -- Robert McNamara resigned as US Secretary of Defense after
the Tet disaster. He was succeeded by Clark Clifford for 9 months who
worked to reverse US policy in Vietnam.
Feb 29 -- The discovery of the first "pulsar," a star which emits
regular radio waves, was announced by Dr. Jocelyn Bell Burnell at
Undated, The Federal Hourly Minimum Wage was set at $1.60 an hour.
March 1 -- Vatican City's Apostolic Constitution of 1967 went into effect.
March 2 -- Ladies Figure Skating Championship won by Peggy Fleming (USA
March 4 -- Martin Luther King Jr. announced plans for Poor People's Campaign
March 9 -- General William Westmoreland asked for 206,000 more troops
March 10 -- Robert Kennedy visited Delano, Calif., in his bid for the
presidency. He joined Cesar Chavez in a chapel where Chavez broke his
fast on behalf of organizing farm workers.
March 11 -- The ultra secret facility Lima Site 85 in Phou Phathi,
Laos, was manned by USAF personnel and 11 were KIA or MIA as it was
overran. The event has been characterized as the largest single day
ground loss for the USAF.
Mar 11 -- The Russian K-129, a Golf-II class, diesel-electric
submarine armed with nuclear missiles and 98 seamen aboard, sank in
16,000 feet of water northwest of the Hawaiian island of Oahu.
Russian officials suspected that the K-129 was struck by an American
submarine, the USS Swordfish. But the US Navy said the vessel
suffered a catastrophic internal explosion. A US sub, the Halibut,
found the Soviet vessel 6 months later and recovered 3 missiles with
nuclear warheads, Soviet code books and an encryption machine. In
1974 the CIA attempted to recover the sub. A 100 foot section was
pulled in by the Glomar Explorer with 2 nuclear tipped torpedoes and
the bodies of 6 Russian sailors. Claude Barnes Capehart worked on
the Howard Hughes' deep-sea research vessel, Glomar Explorer, that
under CIA sponsorship raised a Soviet submarine from the floor of the
Pacific Ocean. Later in Chowchilla, Calif., he told his girlfriend
that he was in Texas when Kennedy was assassinated, and that "Oswald
wasn't the only one involved." Just before a scheduled interview in
1989, Capehart dropped dead of a heart attack.
March 12 -- The New Hampshire primary election brings shocking
results. The Eugene McCarthy campaign, benefiting from the work of
2,000 full-time student volunteers and up to 5,000 on the weekends
immediately preceding the vote comes within 230 votes of defeating
the sitting president Lyndon Johnson. These students, participants in
what McCarthy refers to as his "children's crusade" have cut their
hair, modified their wardrobes, and become "clean for Gene" to
contact the conservative voters in the state.
March 13 -- Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO) and Humble Oil and
Refining Company (now Exxon Company, U.S.A.) announced the discovery
of oil on Alaska's North Slope (Prudhoe Bay). The oil companies soon
began efforts to construct a pipeline, but work was suspended due to
March 16 -- Senator Robert Kennedy, former Attorney General and
brother of former President John F. Kennedy (1961-63) ends months of
debate by announcing that he will enter the 1968 Presidential race.
March 16 -- Although it will not become public knowledge for more
than a year, US ground troops from Charlie Company rampage through
the hamlet of My Lai killing more than 500 Vietnamese civilians from
infants to the elderly. The massacre continues for three hours until
three American fliers intervene, positioning their helicopter between
the troops and the fleeing Vietnamese and eventually carrying a
handful of wounded to safety.
March 16 -- In Vietnam Lt. Calley led 105 men of Company C into My
Lai and at least 347 of 700 Vietnamese civilians were killed.
Estimates of villagers massacred ranged from 347-504. Other killings
by B Company occurred nearby. Col. Oran K. Henderson (d.1998 at 77)
was on his first day as commanding officer of the new 11th Infantry
Brigade and watched from a command helicopter. Hugh Thompson
(d.2006), a helicopter pilot, observed the end of the massacre. He
landed between some remaining villagers and his fellow soldiers and
ordered his gunner to fire on American troops if necessary. With 2
other gunships he airlifted to safety a dozen villagers. He and his
gunner were awarded the Soldier's Medal in 1998. The atrocity was
exposed by Ron Ridenhour (d.1998 at 52), a door gunner on an
observation helicopter, who flew over the village a few days after
the event. He waited several months until he was out of the service
before reporting the event to state and congressional officials. The
Army later charged 25 officers and enlisted men in the massacre but
only Lt. Calley was convicted. Gen. Samuel W. Koster (d.2006) was
charged with covering up the killings, but criminal charges were
eventually dismissed. Koster was censured, stripped of a medal and
demoted one rank to brigadier general. John Sack (d.2004), war
correspondent, later authored "Lieutenant Calley: His Own Story." In
1999 Trent Angers authored "The Forgotten Hero of My Lai: The Hugh
March 19 -- Howard University students seized the administration building.
March 20 -- LBJ signed a bill removing gold backing from US paper money.
March 22 -- In Czechoslovakia Antonin Novotny resigns the Czech
presidency setting off alarm bells in Moscow. The next day leaders of
five Warsaw Pact countries meet in Dresden, East Germany to discuss
March 22 -- Gen. William Westmoreland (1914-2005) was relieved of his
duties in the wake of the Tet disaster. Troop strength under
Westmoreland had reached over 500,000 and he wanted more. He was
succeeded by Gen. Creighton Abrams. Abrams reversed Westmoreland's
strategy. He ended major "search and destroy" missions and focused on
protecting population centers. William Colby took charge of the
pacification campaign. President Lyndon B. Johnson named Gen. William
C. Westmoreland to be the Army's new Chief of Staff.
March 27 -- Suharto succeeded Sukarno as president of Indonesia. Gen.
Suharto thwarted a Communist coup and gradually assumed power.
Thousands of alleged communists were executed amid widespread violence.
March 28 -- Martin Luther King Jr. leads a march in Memphis which
turns violent. After King himself had been led from the scene one 16
year old black boy is killed, 60 people are injured, and over 150 arrested.
March 31 -- President Lyndon Johnson delivers his Address to the
Nation Announcing Steps to Limit the War in Vietnam and Reporting His
Decision Not to Seek Reelection. The speech announces the first in a
series of limitations on US bombing, promising to halt these
activities above the 20th parallel.
April 3 -- Less than 24 hours before he was assassinated in Memphis,
Tenn., civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his
"mountaintop" speech to a rally of striking sanitation workers, "It
really doesn't matter with me now, because I've been to the mountain
top, and I don't mind."
April 4 -- Martin Luther King Jr. spends the day at the Lorraine
Motel in Memphis working and meeting with local leaders on plans for
his Poor People's March on Washington to take place late in the
month. At 6p.m., as he greets the car and friends in the courtyard,
King is shot with one round from a 30.06 rifle. He will be declared
dead just an hour later at St. Joseph's hospital. After an
international man-hunt James Earl Ray will be arrested on June 27 in
England, and convicted of the murder. Ray died in prison in 1998.
Robert Kennedy, hearing of the murder just before he is to give a
speech in Indianapolis, IN, delivers a powerful extemporaneous eulogy
in which he pleads with the audience "to tame the savageness of man
and make gentle the life of this world."
The King assassination sparks rioting in Baltimore, Boston, Chicago,
Detroit, Kansas City, Newark, Washington, D.C., and many others.
Across the country 46 deaths will be blamed on the riots.
April 10 -- In the 40th Academy Awards "Heat of the Night," Rod
Steiger & Katherine Hepburn won.
April 11 -- United States Secretary of Defense Clark Clifford calls
24,500 military reserves to action for 2 year commitments, and
announces a new troop ceiling of 549,500 American soldiers in
Vietnam. The total number of Americans "in country" will peak at some
541,000 in August this year, and decline to 334,000 by 1970.
April 11 -- President Johnson signed into law the Civil Rights Act of
1968, a week after the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. This
included the Indian Civil Rights Act, which limited sentences that
tribes could hand down on any charge to six months. In 1968 Congress
increased the maximum to one year.
April 23 -- A rally and occupation of the Low administrative office
building at Columbia University, planned to protest the university's
participation in the Institute for Defense Analysis is scuttled by
conservative students and university security officers. The
demonstrators march to the site of a proposed new gymnasium at
Morningside Heights to stage a protest in support of neighbors who
use the site for recreation. The action eventually results in the
occupation of five buildings -- Hamilton, Low, Fairweather and
Mathematics halls, and the Architecture building. It will culminate
seven days later when police storm the buildings and violently remove
the students and their supporters at the Columbia administration's request.
April 23 -- The Methodist Church and the Evangelical United Brethren
Church merged to form the United Methodist Church.
April 23 -- An 8-day student sit-in began at Columbia Univ. to
protest ties to the Defense Dept. and plans to build a gym over
neighborhood objections. Within 72 hours students seized 5 buildings
and 628 people were arrested.
April 26 -- Students seized administration building at Ohio State University.
April 26 -- The United States exploded beneath the Nevada desert a
1.3 megaton nuclear device called "Boxcar."
April 29 -- The counterculture musical "Hair" opened on Broadway
following limited engagements off-Broadway.
April 29 -- Dr. Ralph Abernathy led The Poor People's Campaign in
Washington D.C., less than a month after the assassination of King.
It concluded on June 23. The campaign was for reforms in welfare,
employment and housing policies. Abernathy was the successor to Rev.
Martin Luther King as head of the Southern Christian Leadership conference.
May 3 -- The US and North Vietnamese delegations agree to begin peace
talks in Paris later this month. The formal talks will begin on May 10.
May 3-17 -- Student riots and strikes hit France. 10 million workers
went on strike. Workers struck the Renault factory on Seguin Island
for 33 days until the government recognized their union.
May 6 -- In France, "Bloody Monday" marks one of the most violent
days of the Parisian student revolt. Five thousand students march
through the Latin Quarter with support from the student union and the
instructors' union. Reports of the ensuing riot conflict, either the
police charge unprovoked, or demonstrators harass them with thrown
stones. The fighting is intense with rioters setting up barricades
and the police attacking with gas grenades. Over-night the battle
will subside, but only after engaging the sympathies of large numbers
of French unionists.
May 10 -- FBI director Hoover sent all field offices an urgent memo
escalating the FBI's attack on dissent. It authorized an operation
called "Counterintelligence Program -- New Left."
May 11 -- Ralph Abernathy, Martin Luther King Jr.'s designated
successor, and the Southern Christian Leadership Corps are granted a
permit for an encampment on the Mall in Washington, DC. Eventually,
despite nearly a solid month of rain, over 2,500 people will
eventually occupy Resurrection City. On June 24th the site is raided
by police, 124 occupants arrested, and the encampment demolished.
May 13 -- The actions taken by the students and instructors at the
Sorbonne inspires sympathetic strikes throughout France. As many as
nine million workers are on strike by May 22. President de Gaulle
takes action to shore up governmental power, making strident radio
addresses and authorizing large movements of military troops within
the country. These shows of force eventually dissipate the French
May 13 -- Peace talks between the U.S. and North Vietnam began in Paris.
May 17 -- In Maryland the Catonsville Nine including Phillip Berrigan
(d.2002), a Catholic priest, took hundreds of files from the draft
board at the Knights of Columbus building and set them on fire with
gasoline and soap chips.
May 25 -- Rolling Stones released "Jumping Jack Flash."
May 27 -- Memorial Day, which began in 1868 as Decoration Day, was
set aside to remember those who have died in the service of their
country. Celebrated on May 30 for the first 100 years, Memorial Day
was officially changed to the last Monday in May in 1968.
Philip (d.2002) and Daniel Berrigan with seven other Catholic
activists entered a draft board office in Catonsville Md., and seized
nearly 400 files of young men classified 1-A, then burned the files
with homemade napalm, made from a recipe in the US Army Special
May 28 -- Senator Eugene McCarthy won the Democratic primary in Oregon.
May 29 -- Truth in Lending Act was signed into law.
Jun 1 -- "Mrs. Robinson" by Simon & Garfunkel peaked at No. 1 on the
pop singles chart.
June 3 -- Andy Warhol is shot in his New York City loft by Valerie
Solanis, a struggling actress, and writer.
June 3 -- There was a Poor Peoples' March on Washington.
June 4-5 -- On the night of the California Primary Robert Kennedy
addresses a large crowd of supporters at the Ambassador Hotel in San
Francisco. He has won victories in California and South Dakota and is
confident that his campaign will go on to unite the many factions
stressing the country. As he leaves the stage, at 12:13AM on the
morning of the fifth Kennedy is shot by Sirhan Sirhan, a 24 year old
Jordanian living in Los Angeles. The motive for the shooting is
apparently anger at several pro-Israeli speeches Kennedy had made
during the campaign. The forty-two year old Kennedy dies in the early
morning of June sixth.
June 8 -- Robert Kennedy's funeral is held at St. Patrick's Cathedral
in New York. Senator Edward Kennedy, the youngest brother of John and
Robert delivers the eulogy. After the service, the body and 700
guests depart on a special train for the burial at Arlington National
Cemetery in Virginia.
June 18 -- The US Supreme Court banned racial discrimination in the
sale and rental of housing.
June 19 -- 50,000 marched on Washington, D.C. to support the Poor
June 27 -- As the "Prague Spring" continues in Czechoslovakia Ludvik
Vaculik releases his manifesto "Two Thousand Words". This essay,
criticizing Communist rule in Czechoslovakia and concluding with an
overt threat to "foreign forces" trying to control the government of
the country was seen as a direct challenge to the Soviet
Administration who extended ongoing military exercises in the
country, and began planning for their invasion later in the summer.
June 28 -- A bill adding a 10 percent surcharge to income taxes and
reducing government spending is signed by President Johnson. The
president effectively admits it has been impossible to provide both
"guns and butter."
July 1 -- The United States, Britain, the Soviet Union and 58 other
nations signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. India refused to sign.
July 7 -- Abbie Hoffman's "The Yippies are Going to Chicago" is
published in The Realist. The yippie movement, formed by Hoffman,
Jerry Rubin and Paul Krassner, all committed activists and
demonstrators, is characterized by public displays of disorder
ranging from disrupting the trading floor of the New York Stock
Exchange to the destruction of the Clocks at Grand Central Terminal,
the main commuter station for workers in New York City. The Yippie's
will be in the center of action six weeks later at the Chicago
Democratic National Convention, hosting a "Festival of Life" in
contrast to what they term the convention's "Festival of Death."
July 17 -- The Arab Socialist Baath Party staged a bloodless coup in
Iraq and gained control as the Revolution Command Council. Abdul
Rahman Arif, brother of Abdul Salam Arif (d.1966), was ousted in the
Baathist coup and exiled to Istanbul. Ahmed Hasan-al-Bakr became
president of Iraq after the July 17 coup. This became a national
holiday until it was abolished in 2003. Saddam Hussein soon became
recognized as the strongman of the regime.
July 27 -- There was a race riot in Gary, Indiana.
July 29 -- Pope Paul VI issued the encyclical Humanae Vitae, which
reaffirmed the Church's opposition to abortion and to all
contraception except the rhythm method.
Aug. 8 -- At their Party convention in Miami Beach the Republicans
nominate Richard Milhouse Nixon to be their presidential candidate.
The next day Nixon will appoint Spiro Agnew of Maryland as his
running mate. Nixon has been challenged in his campaign by Nelson
Rockefeller of New York, and Ronald Reagan of California.
Aug 8 -- There was a race riot in Miami, Florida.
Aug. 10 -- Race riots took place in Miami, Chicago and Little Rock.
Aug. 20 -- The Soviet Union invades Czechoslovakia with over 200,000
Warsaw pact troops, putting an end to the "Prague Spring," and
beginning a period of enforced and oppressive "normalization."
Aug. 25 -- Arthur Ashe became the 1st black to win US tennis singles
Aug. 26 -- Mayor Richard Daley opens the Democratic National
Convention in Chicago. While the convention moves haltingly toward
nominating Hubert Humphrey for president, the city's police attempt
to enforce an 11 o'clock curfew. On that Monday night demonstrations
are widespread, but generally peaceful. The next two days, however,
bring increasing tension and violence to the situation.
Aug. 28 -- By most accounts, on Wednesday evening Chicago police take
action against crowds of demonstrators without provocation. The
police beat some marchers unconscious and send at least 100 to
emergency rooms while arresting 175. Mayor Daley tried the next day
to explain the police action at a press conference. He famously
explained: "The policeman isn't there to create disorder, the
policeman is there to preserve disorder." Twenty-eight years later,
when the Democrats next held a convention in Chicago, some police
officers still on the force wore t-shirts proclaiming, "We kicked
their father's butt in '68 and now it's your turn."
Aug 30 -- The Beatle's recorded Hey Jude, their 1st record under the
Sept. 1 -- Democratic nominee Hubert Humphrey kicks off his
presidential campaign at New York City's Labor Day parade.
Sept. 7 -- Women's Liberation groups, joined by members of New York
NOW, target the Miss America Beauty Contest in Atlantic City. The
protest includes theatrical demonstrations including ritual disposal
of traditional female roles into the "freedom ashcan." While nothing
is actually set on fire, one organizer's comment - quoted in the New
York Times the next day - that the protesters "wouldn't do anything
dangerous, just a symbolic bra-burning," lives on in the derogatory
term "bra-burning feminist."
Sept. 24 -- "The Mod Squad" premiered on ABC. The show ran until 1973.
Sept 24 -- The CBS news magazine "60 Minutes" premiered on CBS-TV on
a Tuesday night. Don Hewitt created and produced the TV news show "60
Minutes." He wrote his book "Minute by Minute" in 1985.
Sept. 30 -- The first Boeing 747 was rolled out.
The Big Mac was created by McDonald's franchisee Jim Delligatti in
Pittsburgh. It sold for 49 cents.
Oct. 1 -- The cult horror movie "Night of the Living Dead" had its
world premiere in Pittsburgh.
Oct. 2 -- Police and military troops in Mexico City react violently
to a student - led protest in Tlatelolco Square. Hundreds of the
demonstrators are killed or injured. Under Pres. Gustavo Diaz Ordaz
soldiers with automatic weapons killed some 300 students in the
Mexico City Tlatelolco massacre prior to the start of the summer
Olympics. The government said only 50 students were killed during
gunfire that lasted 5 hours. Luis Echeverria, later president, was
the interior minister and the man in charge of public security. He
was called before a congressional committee in 1998. Evidence in 1999
confirmed that pre-positioned soldiers fired on the students. In 2002
a special prosecutor said he has found no evidence to support
historians' claims that some 300 people died when army troops opened
fire on demonstrators in 1968. He put the number killed at 38.
Oct. 3 -- George Wallace, who has been running an independent
campaign for the presidency which has met significant support in the
South and the Midwest, names retired Air Force Chief of Staff Curtis
E. LeMay to be his running mate. At the press conference, the general
is asked about his position on the use of nuclear weapons, and
responds: "I think most military men think it's just another weapon
in the arsenal... I think there are many times when it would be most
efficient to use nuclear weapons. ... I don't believe the world would
end if we exploded a nuclear weapon."
Oct. 11 -- Apollo 7 is launched from Florida for an eleven day
journey which will orbit the Earth 163 times.
Oct. 12 -- The Summer Olympic Games open in Mexico City. The games
have been boycotted by 32 African nations in protest of South
Africa's participation. On the 18th Tommie Smith and John Carlos,
U.S. athletes and medalists in the 200-meter dash will further
disrupt the games by performing the black power salute during the
"Star-Spangled Banner" at their medal ceremony.
Oct 14. -- The Beatles "White Album" was completed.
Oct. 18 -- The US Olympic Committee suspended two black athletes,
Tommie Smith and John Carlos, for giving a black power salute as a
protest during a victory ceremony in Mexico City. Bob Beamon soared
29 feet, 2 inches, to set a world record in the long jump. In 1976
Dick Schaap authored "The Perfect Jump."
Oct .20 -- Jacqueline Kennedy marries Aristotle Onassis, a Greek
shipping magnate on the private island of Skorpios.
Oct. 27 -- In London there was a massive anti-Vietnam war demonstration.
Oct. 31 -- President Johnson announces a total halt to US bombing in
Nov. 5 -- Richard Nixon becomes president by less than a percentage point.
Shirley Chisholm (1924-2004) of Brooklyn, New York, became the first
black woman elected to serve in the US House of Representatives.
Nov. 14 -- National Turn in Your Draft Card Day is observed with
rallies and protests on college campuses throughout the country.
Nov. 17 -- NBC outraged football fans by cutting away from the final
minutes of a New York Jets-Oakland Raiders game to begin a TV
special, "Heidi," on schedule. The jets led 32-29 with one minute
remaining. Viewers were deprived of seeing the Raiders come from
behind to beat the Jets, 43-to-32.
Nov. 22 -- Beatles released their "Beatles," (White Album) their only
Nov. 26 -- After stalling for months, the South Vietnamese government
agrees to join in the Paris peace talks.
Undated -- At SF State on the one year anniversary of the Gator
incident, the Black Student Union issued a list of 10 "nonnegotiable"
demands and called for a one day strike. The strike lasted 167 days.
Dec. 11 -- The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP)
was founded by Dr. George Habash, founder of the pan-Arab nationalist
Dec. 12 -- Robert and Ethel Kennedy's daughter, Rory, their eleventh
child is born.
Dec. 21 -- The launch of Apollo 8 begins the first US mission to
orbit the Moon.